Under Secretary of State


Under Secretary of State

Der Under Secretary of State war von 1919 bis 1972 der zweithöchste Beamte im Außenministerium der Vereinigten Staaten (State Department) und damit der erste Stellvertreter des Außenministers. Dem jeweiligen Amtsinhaber oblagen Aufgaben in der Leitung des Ministeriums. Zuvor hatten der Chief Clerk, der Assistant Secretary of State und zuletzt seit 1913 der Counselor of the Department of State diese Position inne. 1972 wurde das neue Amt des Vizeaußenministers (Deputy Secretary of State) geschaffen; unter diesem nehmen nun sechs Under Secretaries of State mit verschiedenen Aufgabenbereichen den dritthöchsten Rang in der Hierarchie des Ministeriums ein.

Liste der Amtsinhaber von 1919 bis 1972

Name Amtszeit diente unter Präsident
Frank Lyon Polk 1. Juni 1919–15. Juli 1920 Woodrow Wilson
Norman Hezekiah Davis 15. Juni 1920–7. März 1921 Woodrow Wilson, Warren G. Harding
Henry Prather Fletcher 8. März 1921–6. März 1922 Warren G. Harding
William Phillips 26. April 1922–11. April 1924 Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge
Joseph Clark Grew 16. April 1924–30. Juni 1927 Calvin Coolidge
Robert E. Olds 1. Juni 1927–30. Juni 1928 Calvin Coolidge
Joshua Reuben Clark 31. August 1928–19. Juni 1929 Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover
Joseph P. Cotton 20. Juni 1929–10. März 1931 Herbert Hoover
William Richards Castle 2. April 1931–5. März 1933 Herbert Hoover, Franklin D. Roosevelt
William Phillips 6. März 1933–23. August 1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Benjamin Sumner Welles 21. Mai 1937–30. September 1943 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Edward Reilly Stettinius 4. Oktober 1943–30. November 1944 Franklin D. Roosevelt
Joseph Clark Grew 20. Dezember 1944–15. August 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harry S. Truman
Dean Gooderham Acheson 16. August 1945–30. Juni 1947 Harry S. Truman
Robert Abercrombie Lovett 1. Juli 1947–20. Januar 1949 Harry S. Truman
James Edwin Webb 28. Januar 1949–29. Februar 1952 Harry S. Truman
David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce 1. April 1952–20. Januar 1953 Harry S. Truman
Walter Bedell Smith 9. Februar 1953–1. Oktober 1954 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Herbert Clark Hoover Jr. 4. Oktober 1954–5. Februar 1957 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Christian Archibald Herter 21. Februar 1957–22. April 1959 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Clarence Douglas Dillon 12. Juni 1959–4. Januar 1961 Dwight D. Eisenhower
Chester Bliss Bowles 25. Januar 1961–3. Dezember 1961 John F. Kennedy
George Wildman Ball 4. Dezember 1961–30. September 1966 John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson
Nicholas deBelleville Katzenbach 3. Oktober 1966–20. Januar 1969 Lyndon B. Johnson
Elliot Lee Richardson 23. Januar 1969–23. Juni 1970 Richard Nixon
John Nichol Irwin 21. September 1970–12. Juli 1972 Richard Nixon

Bedeutung des Amtes seit 1972

Im Zuge der Neuordnung des Außenministeriums im Jahr 1972 wurde die Position des Under Secretary of State neu definiert. Bereits zuvor hatte es zeitweise einen Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs und einen Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs gegeben; diese Posten wurden nun dauerhaft eingerichtet. Hinzu kam ein Under Secretary of State for International Security Affairs. Im Laufe der Jahre wurden drei weitere Amtsträger berufen: der Under Secretary of State for Management (1978), der Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs (1994) und der Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs (1999). Nachdem manche Posten eine Umbenennung erfuhren, gibt es heute die folgenden sechs Under Secretaries:

  • Political Affairs: William Joseph Burns
  • Management: Patrick F. Kennedy
  • Economic, Business, and Agricultural Affairs: Robert Hormats
  • Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs: Judith McHale
  • Arms Control and International Security Affairs: Ellen Tauscher
  • Democracy and Global Affairs: Maria Otero

Die Under Secretaries sind heute den Assistant Secretaries übergeordnet. Mit ihnen auf einer Ebene in der Hierarchie des Außenministeriums befindet sich der Counselor, der unmittelbare Berater des Außenministers. Diese Position nimmt seit Januar 2009 Cheryl Mills ein.

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