Attitude Determination and Control System

ADCS (engl. Attitude Determination and Control System) oder AOCS (engl. Attitude and Orbit Control System) ist eine in der Raumfahrttechnik übliche Bezeichnung für das Lage- und Bahnregelungssystem eines Raumfahrzeugs (s/c). Ein solches System besteht typischerweise aus Sensoren, z. B. Sonnensensoren oder Sternensensoren, dem Lagekontrollrechner sowie Aktoren, z. B. Reaktionsrädern oder Triebwerken. Beim AOCS kommt meist noch ein GPS-Empfänger oder On-Board-Navigation System hinzu, was auch die Bestimmung der Orbitposition ermöglicht.

Unterschiedliche Lageregelungsstrategien

Man unterscheidet bei den aktiven AOCS/ADCS Systemen zwischen:

  • Spinstabilisierten Systemen
  • Drallstabilisierten Systemen
  • 3-Achsen-stabilisierten Systemen

Spin- und drallstabilisierte Systeme werden in der englischen Fachliteratur auch als momentum-bias systems, 3-Achsen-stabilisierte Systeme als non-momentum-bias systems bezeichnet.

ADCS/AOCS Sensoren

Lageregelungssensoren dienen der Bestimmung der Ausrichtung des Satelliten/Raumfahrzeugs im Raum.

ADCS/AOCS Aktoren

  • Triebwerke
  • Reaktionsräder
  • Drallräder (immer nur ein, höchstens zwei Räder, falls redundant eingesetzt)
  • Magnetfeldspulen
    • Luftspulen (Spule mit hohem Innenquerschnitt)
    • Magnettorquer/Torqrods (Spule mit Eisenkern)

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